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Exhibit № 25: Daniel Quare, London. Circa 1695

Exhibit № 25: Daniel Quare, London. Circa 1695

An important and rare William III ebony veneered and gilt-brass mounted full Grande Sonnerie striking and trip repeating table clock

£275,000


Height

17¾ inches (451 mm)

Case

The archetypal Quare case veneered in ebony onto an oak carcass. The cushion-domed top with intricate gilt-brass mask and foliate scroll mounts to the front and sides, surmounted by a gilt double-S scroll, centrally ring-turn decorated, knopped handle, typical to Quare. The main ebony cornice moulding above the dial door with applied intricate gilt-brass sound fret to the top rail, the side rails mounted with gilt escutcheons, the case sides with matching applied intricate gilt-brass sound frets over rectangular glazed apertures. The glazed back door with D-frame edge mouldings above the main plinth moulding, all standing on four gilt-brass ringed bun feet.

Dial

The 8 by 9 inch (205 by 229 mm) rectangular gilt-brass, with four subsidiaries to the corners and gilt foliate-scroll repoussé mounts between, the centre revealing Quare, London to the top and bottom. The upper subsidiaries for pendulum regulation and Strike/Silent, the lower for pendulum lock and Repeat/Not Repeat. The silvered chapter ring with Roman hours and fancy sword-hilt half-hour markers, signed D. Quare, London flanking VI, the Arabic minutes every 5 with the  minute division ring. The matted centre with calendar aperture above VI and mock-pendulum aperture all decorated with Quare’s familiar ring turns. The three winding holes ring-turned and the blued-steel hands well pierced and sculpted.

Movement

The very substantial rectangular plates held by six typical Quare decoratively ringed baluster pillars pinned to the frontplate, with triple fusees and barrels; the going train with pivoted verge escapement and pendulum suspended from the rise and fall bar above and locked by twin levers below; the left (IX) side hour strike train governed by a rack and snail and striking on the large horizontal bell; the right (III) side quarter train governed by a rack and snail, with six hammers and springs bridging the plates to sound on six graduated vertical bells above. The backplate, attributed to Graver 195, with a line scored border and symmetrical, entwining, foliate scrolls with garlands of fruit, and signed Dan. Quare London in a central wheatear-bordered oval. The movement held by four blued steel brackets to the case.

Duration

8 days

Provenance

H.S. Wharton Esq.;

Sotheby’s, 6 October 1973, lot 265, for £6,209;

Sotheby’s, 29 May 1974, lot 265, for £6,600;

Private collection, until 2003, with Anthony Woodburn and sold for £200,000;

The John C Taylor Collection, inventory no.120

Literature

Huygens’ Legacy, 2004, p.148-151

Escapement

Pivoted verge with adjustable, suspended and remote locking pendulum

Strike Type

Full Grande Sonnerie striking with trip repeat

Exhibited

2004, Palais Het Loo, Holland, Huygens’ Legacy, exhibit no.81

Quare’s Grande Sonnerie clocks are so scarce that, surprisingly, we can only find three substantiated examples recorded: this clock (the only one with remote pendulum locking); an architectural turtleshell table clock of c.1704 (private collection USA); and Lord Harris of Belmont’s longcase no.145 of c.1715, (Robinson, The Longcase Clock, p.140, col. pl. 10).

By 1695, Quare was reputationly in ascendency, he had just patented his portable barometers and had surpassed Knibb as Tompion’s main rival in the top echelons of the London clock trade. In every aspect, the current example is archetypal of Quare’s best commissioned work. It is of exceptional quality, and represents the most complicated strike facility available, combined with remote controls operating entirely through the dial, as first introduced by Tompion on his renowned series of 2-train Grande Sonnerie clocks (such as The Sussex Tompion in this collection, inventory no.27).

It should be noted that Quare took a completely different approach from Tompion in retailing his clocks. While Tompion stopped buying in unspecified movements and consolidated his workshop practices in the 1680s, Quare continued to provide as wide a stock as possible for all customers throughout his career. This approach, doubtless for commercial reasons, necessitated clocks of all qualities offered side by side. A brief overview indicates how he had several grades of stock, which can be broadly categorised as follows:

1. Commissioned clocks. These were either designed and made within Quare’s workshops, or by outworkers elsewhere with the requisite skills, in either scenario being finished to his high specification. These represent some of the foremost clocks of the era, often in palace grade cases with specifically designed metal mounts, including two superb Grande Sonnerie table clocks (one being the current example), equation clocks, long duration clocks (such as the following exhibit no.26) and the mean and sidereal double-dialed longcases, and a solar time table clock, besides the sought-after small and miniature clocks following Tompion’s style.

2. Standard workshop production. These are Quare’s standard domestic clocks that were generally made in his workshops. They are of extremely high quality and include month-going longcases as well as quarter repeating table clocks. Quare’s own workshop-made productions are relatively easy to identify, having his own pattern of repeating systems, as well as very particular styling of component parts. But while hoping not to confuse matters, it must be borne in mind that he also supplied other businesses.

3. Bought-in stock. Generally these clocks are perfectly presentable examples of standard London table clocks – often supplied to Quare complete, including cases – but to a lower standard than his own workshop-made domestic clocks. These were mostly repeating table clocks and almost identical examples can be found signed by Windmills, Gretton and others.

 

Daniel Quare (1647/8-1724) is thought to have been born in Somerset, but it is not recorded where he learnt his trade. Described as a Great Clockmaker he was admitted to the Clockmakers’ Company as a Freeman on 3rd April 1671, the same year as Joseph Knibb and Thomas Tompion. Quare was considerably younger and his rise was slower; whereas Knibb and Tompion were commercial rivals almost from the outset, Quare became Tompion’s great rival from the mid 1680s, and by the 1690s Knibb’s business was in decline. Quare served the Company as Assistant from 1698 and was elected Junior Warden in 1705, rising to Master in 1708. Quare was a Quaker and, although eased by the Toleration Act of 1689, his beliefs often brought him into conflict with the authorities.

Nothing is known of his whereabouts until 1675/6, when he had premises in St. Martin-le-Grand, and by 1681 he was established at Lombard Street. By 1686 he moved to ‘The Dial’ in Exchange Alley, a small thoroughfare much favoured by the horological trade, where he took over the premises of Robert Seignior, changing the sign to ‘The King’s Arms’, and his business truly started to flourish.

In 1687 Edward Barlow (Booth) sought a patent for the sole making and manageing of all pulling repeating pockett Clocks and Watches, but with backing from the Clockmakers’, Quare was encouraged to successfully challenge the application. James II favoured Quare’s design as it had just one push-piece whereas Barlow’s had two, and in any case it was pointed out that … the same [are] being now made by several clockmakers. Tompion is reputed to have made the watch submitted by Barlow and yet he told Constantyn Huygens, the Dutch statesman and scientist, that he had never seen Barlow, the priest who had invented repeating watches.

In 1691/2 Quare supplied William III with a repeating watch costing £69 17s 6d, and at Hampton Court a fine 10-feet year-going walnut solar/mean-time longcase clock still stands in the king’s bedroom. He is also known to have supplied a small dual balance or pendulum controlled travelling clock (at Windsor) and three barometers (two of which are at Hampton Court). On 4th December 1694, Huygens wrote in his diary that he… was in Kensington. The King called me again as he came out of his Cabinet, saying: “Zuylichem, Zuylichem” [Huygens was Lord of Zuylichem] and showed me a barometer which the Quaker Quare had made for him, and it was such that it could be carried from one place to another. By 2nd August 1695, Daniel Quare had been granted a 14-year patent for his portable pillar barometers… the first ever given for a barometer… and described as …a portable weather glass or barometer, which may be removed or carried to any place though turned upside down without spilling one drop of quicksilver or letting any air into the tube.

It was not until circa 1704 that he began to number his clocks in series, which continued after he died and exceeded 300 items, but his business may have retailed twice that number, while the last clock recorded signed by Quare without Horseman is no.162. His business in portable barometers flourished from circa 1695 until circa 1718, and it seems likely the numbering of these began at a similar time, and that series reached at least 148.

In papers held at Friends House, Quare wrote of his meetings with the newly crowned king, George I… Having had the Experience of my work for many years before he came to the Crown, sent for me… at his Palace, and then offered to make me his Clock and Watchmaker in Ordinary, but I made some hisitation of accepting it, for that I thought I must swear. The king was aware of his religious beliefs and Quare goes on to hint at a position without official title …However about a week after I having Business in the King’s Closet, the King… bid me tell him, That he would order a Patent and Pension for me to be his Clock and Watch-maker, during life. Whatever the exact relationship, the King told him that he could call to see him at any time and, accordingly …The Yeoman of the Guard lets me frequently go up without any body for leave, as otherwise he would tho’ persons of quality. His religion did not hinder his advancement and he also noted that in forty years he had served men of the Greatest Rank of most other nations in Europe, as well as this Nation.

An interesting reference concerning Quare’s eyesight, presumably in these latter years but not datable, comes from a letter about Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll (see exhibit 33, p.226), saying that I once saw him come into Quare’s shop, while I was discoursing with the Master of it, about a small Improvement in Watches, not in the Movement Part, but in the striking … but Quare could not take it well, having just then lost his Sight. [Ipswich Journal, 3:4:1756].

In 1712, his former apprentice Stephen Horseman had married Quare’s niece, Mary Savage, and in circa 1717/18, Quare took Horseman into partnership. He took a total of fifteen apprentices and in 1717, in Philosophical Transactions, one of these, Joseph Williamson (see exhibit 35, p.234), wrote: Having been informed lately of a French book in which the Author speaks of making Clocks to agree with the Sun’s apparent Motion; and suppofeth it was a thing never thought of by any before himfelf... he rebuffs, asserting his authorship on an earlier clock… found in the late King Charles the second of Spain’s cabinet, about the year 1699 or 1700… supplied by… Mr. Daniel Quare… and… This I [Williamson] am well satisfied is a clock of my own making.

Daniel Quare died aged 75 on 21st March 1724, and was buried in the Quakers’ Cemetery at Bunhill Fields, Finsbury – Last week dy’d Mr. Daniel Quare, watchmaker in Exchange Alley, who was famous both here and at foreign courts for the great improvements he made in that art, and we hear he is succeeded in his shop and trade by his partner, Mr. Horseman. [Daily Post, 26th March 1724].

Using the partnership name, Horseman continued the business until he was declared bankrupt (London Gazette, 28th November 1730) but, curiously, it was over two years before the stock was advertised for sale, on 19th April 1733, in the Daily Post: To be sold by auction for the benefit of the creditors of Quare and Horseman all the clocks, watches, movements, mathematical instruments and sun dials consisting of great variety that were taken by Statute of Bankruptcy in the dwelling house of the late celebrated Mr Quare.

Daniel Quare’s reputation continued long after his death, and association with his name was clearly a powerful marketing tool; twenty-five years later, clocks by the Grignions were signed … from the late Mr. Quare. Later still, and in the colonies, John Adams wrote a letter to the Boston Gazette, dated 27 January 1766 about the fundamentals of human life … A clock also has a constitution … this is the proper business of Quare, Tomlinson [Tompion] and Graham, to execute the workmanship like artists, and come as near to perfection… Over 40 years had passed, but Quare was still held up as being one of the foremost makers of the time. Adams was later to be 1st Vice-President, 1789-1797, and 2nd President of the United States, 1797-1801.

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Product Description

Quare’s Grande Sonnerie clocks are so scarce that, surprisingly, we can only find three substantiated examples recorded: this clock (the only one with remote pendulum locking); an architectural turtleshell table clock of c.1704 (private collection USA); and Lord Harris of Belmont’s longcase no.145 of c.1715, (Robinson, The Longcase Clock, p.140, col. pl. 10).

By 1695, Quare was reputationly in ascendency, he had just patented his portable barometers and had surpassed Knibb as Tompion’s main rival in the top echelons of the London clock trade. In every aspect, the current example is archetypal of Quare’s best commissioned work. It is of exceptional quality, and represents the most complicated strike facility available, combined with remote controls operating entirely through the dial, as first introduced by Tompion on his renowned series of 2-train Grande Sonnerie clocks (such as The Sussex Tompion in this collection, inventory no.27).

It should be noted that Quare took a completely different approach from Tompion in retailing his clocks. While Tompion stopped buying in unspecified movements and consolidated his workshop practices in the 1680s, Quare continued to provide as wide a stock as possible for all customers throughout his career. This approach, doubtless for commercial reasons, necessitated clocks of all qualities offered side by side. A brief overview indicates how he had several grades of stock, which can be broadly categorised as follows:

1. Commissioned clocks. These were either designed and made within Quare’s workshops, or by outworkers elsewhere with the requisite skills, in either scenario being finished to his high specification. These represent some of the foremost clocks of the era, often in palace grade cases with specifically designed metal mounts, including two superb Grande Sonnerie table clocks (one being the current example), equation clocks, long duration clocks (such as the following exhibit no.26) and the mean and sidereal double-dialed longcases, and a solar time table clock, besides the sought-after small and miniature clocks following Tompion’s style.

2. Standard workshop production. These are Quare’s standard domestic clocks that were generally made in his workshops. They are of extremely high quality and include month-going longcases as well as quarter repeating table clocks. Quare’s own workshop-made productions are relatively easy to identify, having his own pattern of repeating systems, as well as very particular styling of component parts. But while hoping not to confuse matters, it must be borne in mind that he also supplied other businesses.

3. Bought-in stock. Generally these clocks are perfectly presentable examples of standard London table clocks – often supplied to Quare complete, including cases – but to a lower standard than his own workshop-made domestic clocks. These were mostly repeating table clocks and almost identical examples can be found signed by Windmills, Gretton and others.

 

Daniel Quare (1647/8-1724) is thought to have been born in Somerset, but it is not recorded where he learnt his trade. Described as a Great Clockmaker he was admitted to the Clockmakers’ Company as a Freeman on 3rd April 1671, the same year as Joseph Knibb and Thomas Tompion. Quare was considerably younger and his rise was slower; whereas Knibb and Tompion were commercial rivals almost from the outset, Quare became Tompion’s great rival from the mid 1680s, and by the 1690s Knibb’s business was in decline. Quare served the Company as Assistant from 1698 and was elected Junior Warden in 1705, rising to Master in 1708. Quare was a Quaker and, although eased by the Toleration Act of 1689, his beliefs often brought him into conflict with the authorities.

Nothing is known of his whereabouts until 1675/6, when he had premises in St. Martin-le-Grand, and by 1681 he was established at Lombard Street. By 1686 he moved to ‘The Dial’ in Exchange Alley, a small thoroughfare much favoured by the horological trade, where he took over the premises of Robert Seignior, changing the sign to ‘The King’s Arms’, and his business truly started to flourish.

In 1687 Edward Barlow (Booth) sought a patent for the sole making and manageing of all pulling repeating pockett Clocks and Watches, but with backing from the Clockmakers’, Quare was encouraged to successfully challenge the application. James II favoured Quare’s design as it had just one push-piece whereas Barlow’s had two, and in any case it was pointed out that … the same [are] being now made by several clockmakers. Tompion is reputed to have made the watch submitted by Barlow and yet he told Constantyn Huygens, the Dutch statesman and scientist, that he had never seen Barlow, the priest who had invented repeating watches.

In 1691/2 Quare supplied William III with a repeating watch costing £69 17s 6d, and at Hampton Court a fine 10-feet year-going walnut solar/mean-time longcase clock still stands in the king’s bedroom. He is also known to have supplied a small dual balance or pendulum controlled travelling clock (at Windsor) and three barometers (two of which are at Hampton Court). On 4th December 1694, Huygens wrote in his diary that he… was in Kensington. The King called me again as he came out of his Cabinet, saying: “Zuylichem, Zuylichem” [Huygens was Lord of Zuylichem] and showed me a barometer which the Quaker Quare had made for him, and it was such that it could be carried from one place to another. By 2nd August 1695, Daniel Quare had been granted a 14-year patent for his portable pillar barometers… the first ever given for a barometer… and described as …a portable weather glass or barometer, which may be removed or carried to any place though turned upside down without spilling one drop of quicksilver or letting any air into the tube.

It was not until circa 1704 that he began to number his clocks in series, which continued after he died and exceeded 300 items, but his business may have retailed twice that number, while the last clock recorded signed by Quare without Horseman is no.162. His business in portable barometers flourished from circa 1695 until circa 1718, and it seems likely the numbering of these began at a similar time, and that series reached at least 148.

In papers held at Friends House, Quare wrote of his meetings with the newly crowned king, George I… Having had the Experience of my work for many years before he came to the Crown, sent for me… at his Palace, and then offered to make me his Clock and Watchmaker in Ordinary, but I made some hisitation of accepting it, for that I thought I must swear. The king was aware of his religious beliefs and Quare goes on to hint at a position without official title …However about a week after I having Business in the King’s Closet, the King… bid me tell him, That he would order a Patent and Pension for me to be his Clock and Watch-maker, during life. Whatever the exact relationship, the King told him that he could call to see him at any time and, accordingly …The Yeoman of the Guard lets me frequently go up without any body for leave, as otherwise he would tho’ persons of quality. His religion did not hinder his advancement and he also noted that in forty years he had served men of the Greatest Rank of most other nations in Europe, as well as this Nation.

An interesting reference concerning Quare’s eyesight, presumably in these latter years but not datable, comes from a letter about Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll (see exhibit 33, p.226), saying that I once saw him come into Quare’s shop, while I was discoursing with the Master of it, about a small Improvement in Watches, not in the Movement Part, but in the striking … but Quare could not take it well, having just then lost his Sight. [Ipswich Journal, 3:4:1756].

In 1712, his former apprentice Stephen Horseman had married Quare’s niece, Mary Savage, and in circa 1717/18, Quare took Horseman into partnership. He took a total of fifteen apprentices and in 1717, in Philosophical Transactions, one of these, Joseph Williamson (see exhibit 35, p.234), wrote: Having been informed lately of a French book in which the Author speaks of making Clocks to agree with the Sun’s apparent Motion; and suppofeth it was a thing never thought of by any before himfelf... he rebuffs, asserting his authorship on an earlier clock… found in the late King Charles the second of Spain’s cabinet, about the year 1699 or 1700… supplied by… Mr. Daniel Quare… and… This I [Williamson] am well satisfied is a clock of my own making.

Daniel Quare died aged 75 on 21st March 1724, and was buried in the Quakers’ Cemetery at Bunhill Fields, Finsbury – Last week dy’d Mr. Daniel Quare, watchmaker in Exchange Alley, who was famous both here and at foreign courts for the great improvements he made in that art, and we hear he is succeeded in his shop and trade by his partner, Mr. Horseman. [Daily Post, 26th March 1724].

Using the partnership name, Horseman continued the business until he was declared bankrupt (London Gazette, 28th November 1730) but, curiously, it was over two years before the stock was advertised for sale, on 19th April 1733, in the Daily Post: To be sold by auction for the benefit of the creditors of Quare and Horseman all the clocks, watches, movements, mathematical instruments and sun dials consisting of great variety that were taken by Statute of Bankruptcy in the dwelling house of the late celebrated Mr Quare.

Daniel Quare’s reputation continued long after his death, and association with his name was clearly a powerful marketing tool; twenty-five years later, clocks by the Grignions were signed … from the late Mr. Quare. Later still, and in the colonies, John Adams wrote a letter to the Boston Gazette, dated 27 January 1766 about the fundamentals of human life … A clock also has a constitution … this is the proper business of Quare, Tomlinson [Tompion] and Graham, to execute the workmanship like artists, and come as near to perfection… Over 40 years had passed, but Quare was still held up as being one of the foremost makers of the time. Adams was later to be 1st Vice-President, 1789-1797, and 2nd President of the United States, 1797-1801.

Additional information

Dimensions 5827373 cm